SEIN Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Heemstede, The Netherlands
UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of (Child) Neurology and Neurosurgery, Utrecht University, the Netherlands, member of ERN EpiCARE
NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom, member of ERN EpiCARE
Renate van Griethuysen
SEIN Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Dr. Denekampweg 20, 8025BV Zwolle, The Netherlands
Presurgical long-term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEG) is an important part of the presurgical evaluation in patients with focal epilepsy. Multiple seizures need to be recorded, often in limited time and with the need to taper anti-seizure medication (ASM). The aim of this study was to systematically study the yield – in terms of success – and risks associated with presurgical LT-VEEG, and to identify all previously reported contributing variables.
A systematic review of the databases of PubMed Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guideline. Publications about presurgical LT-VEEG reporting on variables contributing to yield and risk were included. Study characteristics of all included studies were extracted following a standardized template. Within these articles, studies presenting multivariable analyses of factors contributing to the risk of adverse events or the success of LT-VEEG were identified.
We found 36 articles reporting on LT-VEEG, including 4,703 presurgical patients, both children and adults. Presurgical LT-VEEG monitoring led to an average yield of 85%. Adverse events occurred with an averaged total event rate of 17%, but the type of included events was variable among studies. Factors reported to independently contribute to successful LT-VEEG were: baseline seizure frequency, a shorter interval from the most recent seizure, extratemporal lobe epilepsy, and no requirement for ASM reduction. Factors independently contributing to the occurrence of adverse events were: ASM tapering, a history of status epilepticus, a history of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, psychiatric comorbidity, and ASM taper rate.
This study reveals that the data on factors contributing to yield and risk of adverse events is significant and variable, and often reported with inadequate statistics. Future research is warranted to develop guidelines for ASM withdrawal during presurgical video-EEG monitoring, taking predefined factors for success and risks of adverse events into account.