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The nature and nosology of nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD) have been controversial. Some authors consider it as a type of parasomnia, akin to night terrors and the official Classification of Sleep Disorder includes NPD within the parasomnias . Others have opined for its epileptic nature, although mainly on circumstantial evidence. The location of the epileptogenic area has been so far unknown. A child with NPD was studied extensively, and in spite of normal scalp EEGs, all of his attacks were shown to originate from his right orbitofrontal cortex. Surgical ablation of an unsuspected cortical dysplastic lesion led to full control.