Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France, Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Strasbourg, 67400 Illkirch-Grafenstaden, France, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Paris XI, 92290 Chatenay-Malabry, France, Laboratoire de Physiologie et Pathologie, UPMC, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
Mg depletion is a type of Mg deficit due to a dysregulation of the Mg status. It cannot be corrected through nutritional supplementation only, but requires the most specific correction of the dysregulating mechanism. Among those, Biological Clock (BC) dysrhythmias are to be considered. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical forms of Mg depletion with hypofunction of the Biological Clock (hBC). hBC may be due to either Primary disorders of BC [Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) and pineal gland (PG)] or Secondary with homeostatic response [reactive Photophobia (Pφ)] to light neurostimulating effects [Nervous Hyper Excitability (NHE)]. The symptomatology is mainly diurnal and observed during fair weather (Spring,Summer). The elective marker of hBC is represented by a decrease in melatonin and in its metabolites in various fluids. The clinical forms of NHE due to Mg depletion with hBC are central and peripheral. The central forms associate anxiety, headaches and dyssomnia. The peripheral manifestations are neuromuscular: photosensitive epilepsia mainly. Three chronopathological forms of Mg depletion with hBC have been highlighted: 1. Headaches with Pφ: mainly migraine; 2. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS); 3. Multiple Sclerosis (MS).- Headaches with Pφ, migraine particularly. These cephalalgias are diurnal with Pφ and are aggravated during the fair seasons (particularly during midnight sun-summer). Migraine is their typical form with its dishabituation to visual stimuli and its occipital cortex hyperexcitability. Comorbidity with anxiety is frequent. In 2/3 of the cases, it appears first.- SIDS might be linked to an impaired maturation of both photoendocrine system and brown adipose tissue.- MS may be associated with primary disorders of BC Clinical forms of Mg depletion with hBC in MS present diurnal exacerbations and relapses during fair seasons. They have been underestimated because they disagree with the dogma of the « latitude gradient », presently questioned. Comorbidities with anxiety and migraine are frequent.hBC may be treated by using darkness therapy with a balanced Mg status. Absolute light deprivation should only be used only in acute indications and is time-limited. Partial substitutive therapy and chromatotherapy have not been validated yet and are still uncertain.