Microwave activation of keratinocytes and dendritic cells. A) Left: flow cytometric analysis of viable keratinocytes (% of total cells) indicated by negative staining with the amine reactive viability dye LIVE/DEAD after control, microwave (5-150 J), or LPS/IFN-γ treatment. Keratinocytes were treated then kept in culture for 24 (black bars), 48 (light grey) or 72 (dark grey) hours before analysis. Right: flow cytometric analysis of keratinocyte viability after microwave therapy or control, depicted as a histogram. X-axis: LIVE/DEAD stain; y-axis: cell count. B) Flow cytometric analysis of HLA-DR, ICAM-1, CD40 or CD80 expression on viable keratinocytes. Keratinocytes were treated with microwave therapy (5-150 J), LPS/IFN-γ, or nil (control), rested in culture for 24 (black bars), 48 (light grey) or 72 (dark grey) hours, before analysis of the viable population. C) Flow cytometric analysis of CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression on viable monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Keratinocytes were treated with microwaves (5-150 J), LPS/IFN-γ, or untreated (control), rested in culture for eight hours, then washed. They were left in culture for the remaining time until 24 (black bars) or 48 (light grey) hours, before transfer of supernatant onto moDCs. MoDCs were incubated for 24 hours before harvesting for analysis. Data are representative of three independent experiments. Mean+SD; * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001.