Laboratoire de virologie, EA 3175, CHU Dupuytren, 2, avenue Martin‐Luther King, 87042 Limoges Cedex
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a strong mediator of the immune response triggered by a viral infection. It binds to two receptors: TNFR‐I and TNFR‐II. Different cellular proteins, interacting with these receptors, induce different transduction pathways, leading to apoptosis or cellular proliferation. Certain human herpes viruses can interfere with TNFα signalisation pathways, in increasing or inhibiting TNFα production, leading to apoptosis or cellular proliferation. On the other hand, TNFα can act as a regulator of the human herpesvirus productive cycle: it can exhibit an antiviral action or stimulate viral reactivation.