Science et changements planétaires / Sécheresse


Atmospheric emissions of carbonaceous and nitrogenized compounds by domestic fires in the Sahel Volume 13, issue 3, Septembre 2002


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Université Abdou Moumouni, École normale supérieure de Niamey, BP 10963, Niamey, Niger.
  • Page(s) : 145-54
  • Published in: 2002

An experimental campaign was held from April 22 to April 27, 1997 in Niamey (Niger) in order to study the emissions of the carbonaceous and nitrogenized compounds by domestic fires. Combustions concerned the five species of wood (Déligna, Gao, Kokorbé, Koubou and Sabara) typically used in Sahelian areas and more particularly in Niger. To reproduce real life conditions, wood is placed in a traditional "three stones" stove or in an improved stone and a pot is placed on the fire. In order to quantify the compounds issued, each combustion phase was characterized by its emission ratio DELTACO/DELTACO2, the temperature of pyrolysis and the speed of mass loss. Wood combustion is characterized in the flaming phase by a weak emission ratio DELTACO/DELTACO2 (3.7 ± 1.9%), a high temperature (814 ± 33° C) and a mass loss of 76 ± 22 g/min indicative of a good combustion efficacy. Tests comparing wood combustion in two types of stoves (threes stones, improved stove) show that combustion (DELTACO/DELTACO2 = 3.2 ± 1.1%) is better in the traditional stove than in the improved stove (DELTACO/DELTACO2 = 9.3 ± 2.3%). The domestic emissions of combustion are of 1.07 Tg C(CO2) and 0,1 Tg C(CO) in Niger against 6.6 Tg C(CO2) and 0.5 Tg C(CO) in the Sahel. They represent between 7 and 55% of the fire emissions in the savanna and are thus not to be neglected.