Science et changements planétaires / Sécheresse


Emergence of pastoral systems in Chadian savannah: For what territorial and social integration? Volume 23, issue 4, Octobre-Novembre-Décembre 2012


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Laboratoire de recherches vétérinaires et zootechniques (LRVZ) de Farcha BP 433 Ndjamena Tchad, Cirad-Selmet Campus international de Baillarguet 34032 Montpellier France

Agricultural and pastoral communities must frequently use the same spaces in southwestern Chad's savannahs, which could lead to conflict. Our study focused on Peul camps in a region close to a protected area, the “Forêt classée de Yamba Berté,” and revealed that the two activities have not been integrated in a mixed model of production from the beginning. The distinction is higher with regard to the utilization of space, where the agricultural use structures the space (more than 80%) and rangelands dedicated to animals are entirely subordinated to it. Even if farmers today are more used to raising cattle, space management does not take pastoral activities into account and it is becoming difficult for the herders to move with their animals. This phenomenon is increased by the proximity of a protected area, and we often observe animals’ incursions into agricultural fields, sources of conflict which can be violent. Territorial and social integration of the pastoralism in these savannah zones needs a regional planning scheme and an adapted legal and administrative system to facilitate pastoral mobility founded on principles of negotiation with all the stakeholders.