John Libbey Eurotext

L'Orthodontie Française

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Prévalence et facteurs associés aux habitudes de succion non nutritive. Étude transversale chez des enfants sénégalais âgés de 5/6 ans Volume 79, issue 2, Juin 2008

Authors
1 Service d'Orthodontie, Département d'Odontologie, Faculté de
Médecine, de Pharmacie et d'Odontologie, Université Cheikh
Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal
2 Faculté de chirurgie dentaire,
EA 3847, 11 boulevard Charles de gaulle, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
* ibrahim@refer.sn

Sucking behaviours have been described in the literature under two facets i.e. nutritive and non nutritive. Nutritive sucking refers to breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both. Non nutritive sucking habits are mentioned when children suck their thumb or another finger(s), a pacifier or any other object. Non nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) are suspected to potentially induce dentoalveolar anomalies and thus may constitute a public dental health problem. Anthropological and historical data suggest that non nutritive sucking habits are associated with modern pattern of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with NNSH in Senegalese children 5/6 years old. Data of this study were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by the investigators to mothers or caregivers of 443 children (231 boys and 212 girls) aged 5/6 years. Three types of data were collected: data on the social background of the children including place of residence (urban, suburban and rural) and the mother's occupation (workers, employee, executive, housewife), data regarding former and present sucking habits and information on the feeding pattern of the children when they were infants (breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both). The results indicated a prevalence rate of 16.50% and 17.20% respectively for digit and pacifier sucking in this population. Also, a significant association was found between children's non nutritive sucking habits in one hand and the mothers' occupation and feeding pattern on the other hand. Breast fed children are less prone to develop a non nutritive sucking habit than bottle fed children. Longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the nature of these associations. The identification of factors associated with non nutritive sucking habits would permit to develop and target recommendations for the prevention of such habits.