Since publication of the studies by the functionalist school (Ricketts, Linder-Aronson,
Gola...), the role of function, and ventilation in particular, appears to be taken more
widely into account. The close interconnection of ventilation / growth / lingual function
and malocclusion is now evident to all. However, although an ENT diagnosis of a
ventilation defect and its etiology is now standard practice, treatment of the condition
is not always sufficient to ensure a functional environment conducive to orthodontic
stability, even when rehabilitation is prescribed. In some instances, certain
highly-invasive surgical treatments can even exacerbate the initial situation.