L'Orthodontie Française


Impacted second molars, which surgical treatment choosing? Volume 94, issue 3-4, Septembre-Décembre 2023


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1 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Institute of Mouvement Sciences, Marseille, France
2 Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Hôpital Timone, Service chirurgie orale, Marseille, France
3 Exercice libéral, Fuveau, France
4 Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Hôpital Timone, Service d’orthodontie, Marseille, France
5 LBA, UMRT24, Aix-Marseille Université/Université Gustave Eiffel, Marseille, France
Correspondance : jean-hugues.catherine@univ-amu.fr


Delayed evolution of second molars is a rare phenomenon with an estimated prevalence in the mandible of 0 to 2.3%. Many etiologies have been proposed to explain these inclusions, among which the reduction of arch perimeter, distalization of first molar, mesio-angulated position of the second molar. However, the presence and position of the third molar does not seem to be a risk factor for this inclusion.

Materials and Methods

Several therapeutics options with surgical management have been proposed in the literature; surgical repositioning, surgical release of the crown more or less associated with orthodontic treatment, and sometimes avulsion of the second molar to allow the third molar development. There is no recommendation on this subject, the literature describing mostly retrospective studies and case reports.


This article presents the different therapeutic options in the treatment of second molar inclusions.