INSERM UMR-S1147, CNRS SNC5014 ; Université Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints-Pères, Paris, France. Equipe labellisée Ligue Nationale contre le cancer
Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou, Service de gastro-entérologie et d’oncologie digestive, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France
Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou, Service de biologie, 20 rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health burden that requires new techniques, less invasive and more reproducible than conventional tissue biopsy for patient monitoring. Because of intra-tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and selection, tumors often develop resistance to treatments, especially to anti-EGFR targeted therapies indicated in RAS non-mutated metastatic CRC. “Liquid biopsy” is a minimally invasive method, based on analysis of tumor-specific material in peripheral blood samples of patients. In this review, we described the role of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker in the management of patients with CRC at early and advanced tumor stages. Recent studies underline its promising clinical applications for diagnosis, detection of recurrence after surgery and monitoring for tumor response or therapeutic resistance in metastatic setting. This results and innovating detection techniques (ddPCR, optimized NGS such as NGS-BPER or methylation analysis) offer new perspective but still need to be standardized and validated through further studies to permit the use of ctDNA in daily routine.
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