Service d’hématologie adulte, Hôpital Necker-enfants malades, Paris, Service d’hémato-immunologie et de rhumatologie pédiatrique, Hôpital Necker-enfants malades, Paris, Service d’hématologie pédiatrique, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Paris
Over the last 30 years, allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) has become a common therapeutic strategy for many hematologic diseases with a regularly increasing number of treated patients. Most common complications are infectious since these patients receive immunosuppressive drugs for months or years and loose their immunological responses to pathogens after the transplant. The immune reconstitution is a long process depending on several factors such as the type of transplant and the presence of chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD). Thus, prevention of infections is a major issue for transplant recipients and vaccination is a potentially important strategy for reducing the risk of vaccine-preventable infections. This article summarizes the usual recommendations for the vaccination agenda after HSCT and discusses the potential benefit/risk of each vaccine in adults and children, based on current available literature.