UFR Lariboisière Saint‐Louis Paris VII et INTS, Paris, France
Cytokines are now currently used in human therapy. Erythropoietin was the first to be introduced for the treatment of chronic anemia in patient with renal failure. Interleukin‐2 (IL‐2) was proposed as a treatment for renal cancer and melanoma and was also added in cell culture to prepare lymphocyte activated killer (LAK) or tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL). Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G‐CSF) was administrated in patients to reduce post‐chemotherapy neutropenia. G‐CSF mobilizes stem cells from the bone marrow to the blood and allows the collection of peripheral stem cells for bone marrow transplantation. Thrombopoietin or megakaryocyte growth and differentiating factor (MGDF) increase the platelet count in thrombocytopenic patients however some side effects have limited its development for the treatment of post‐chemotherapy thrombocytopenia.