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Environnement, Risques & Santé

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Effects of European Euro IV and V standards on the health impact of urban road traffic in France Volume 9, issue 6, Novembre-Décembre 2010

Authors
VNC BP 21  78670 Villennes Sur Seine France, Ademe-SRTA 20, rue Louis Vicat 75015 Paris France, Geovariances 49 bis av. F. Roosevelt BP 91  77212 AVON France
  • Key words: air pollution, child health, health risk assessment, road traffic
  • DOI : 10.1684/ers.2010.0394
  • Page(s) : 503-15
  • Published in: 2010

Objective: To assess the health impact of urban road traffic in France in 2000 and 2010 and to estimate the benefit attributable to the European emissions standards, Euro IV and V. Material and method: The air pollution (AP) indicators selected for analysis are NO 2 and PM 10. The relative risks (RRs) come from French and European epidemiological studies. New RRs related to children's health were developed for the study. The 2010 forecast includes: i) the distribution of EURO IV and V vehicles in the French vehicle fleet ; ii) the increase in traffic ; and iii) the emissions limits now applied to other sources (industry, service industry, residential). Other variables have remained constant over the period 2000-2010: the exposed population, its age structure, basic incidence of mortality and morbidity, and RR. Results: In 2000, long-term urban exposure to PM 10 led to 19 500 deaths in adults aged 30 years or more for all causes. Impact, expressed as the number of cases, is ranked in descending order as follows: cardiovascular morbidity > short-term all-cause mortality > cardiac mortality > respiratory morbidity > respiratory mortality. Impact in children is dominated by bronchitis and asthma attacks. The attributable fraction of road traffic is 40% in 2000, compared with 31% in 2010. Euro IV and V standards have contributed more strongly to the decrease in the impact of AP than limits applying to other sources. Conclusion: This evaluation of the health benefits due to the Euro IV and V standards was made possible by health impact assessment methods, epidemiological knowledge, and air quality data. Despite a marked reduction, AP continues to have a significant impact on the population. Other public policies are necessary for more complete health benefits.