John Libbey Eurotext

Epileptic Disorders

The Educational Journal of the

Refractory status epilepticus and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in adults: presentation, treatment and outcomes Volume 18, issue 1, March 2016


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1 Department of Neurology
2 Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA
* Correspondence: Ayaz M. Khawaja University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, 1720 7th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA
  • Key words: glutamic acid decarboxylase, status epilepticus, refractory seizures, NORSE, RSE, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, anti-GAD antibody
  • DOI : 10.1684/epd.2016.0797
  • Page(s) : 34-43
  • Published in: 2016


Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been implicated in refractory epilepsy. The association with refractory status epilepticus in adults has been rarely described. We discuss our experience in managing three adult patients who presented with refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs.