Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital
Department of Clinical Medicine, Section for Neurology, University of Bergen
Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Correspondence: Kjersti Nesheim Power
Department of Neurology,
Haukeland University Hospital,
Jonas Lies vei 65,
Aim. Status epilepticus (SE) can lead to sequelae or even death. Identifying characteristics associated with poor outcome is crucial in guiding patient treatment. Based on our retrospective patient cohorts, potential prognostic factors were analysed. Methods. Patients consecutively treated for refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) between 2001 and 2010 and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) between 2004 and 2009 were studied. Outcome was compared to prognostic variables. Index SE episodes were used for the statistical analyses. Crosstabs and independent samples t-test were applied. Due to sample size, logistic regression was performed for the combined groups.
Results. In total,50% (9/18) of index refractory CSE and 42% (16/38) of index NCSE episodes led to sequelae. Refractory CSE requiring narcosis for >20 hours was associated with poor outcome (p=0.05). De novo presentation (p=0.0001), long-lasting SE (>2 hours) (p=0.014), age >65 years (p=0.002), and refractory SE (p=0.047) were predictors of poor outcome following NCSE. Based on logistic regression for combined refractory CSE and NCSE, de novo presentation was identified as the strongest predictor of sequelae.
Conclusions. Older age and de novo SE are predictors of sequelae following NCSE. Prolonged SE is a risk factor for poor outcome, both for refractory CSE and NCSE. Aggressive initial treatment to terminate seizures during the early phase is therefore essential.