Di.S.Sal, Section of Dermatology, University of Genoa, San Martino Policlinic Hospital, Genoa 16132, Italy
Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, Fondazione Luigi Maria Monti, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy
- Key words: bullous pemphigoid, Th2, anti-BP230 and anti-BP180 IgE, omalizumab
- DOI : 10.1684/ejd.2018.3366
- Page(s) : 440-8
- Published in: 2018
Clinical features and histological findings in bullous pemphigoid (BP) suggest a Th2-oriented inflammatory reaction, especially in the early stages of the disease. Elevated total serum IgE levels, blood eosinophilia, and elevated serum levels of different soluble inflammatory Th2 response mediators have been described in large cohorts of patients with classic clear-cut BP manifestations. Direct immunofluorescence, indirect immunofluorescence, and anti-BP230 and anti-BP180 IgE ELISA testing show self-reactive IgE autoantibodies in a consistent number of BP patients. Both IgE autoantibodies and a Th2-oriented immune response may play a role in the initial phases of BP and atypical cases of BP, such as severe erythematous and urticarial forms of BP, as well as blister formation. Two recently reported experimental murine models employing IgE autoantibodies against BP180 have been reported and the successful treatment of bullous pemphigoid with the anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab, supports the roles played by IgE autoantibodies in BP pathogenesis.