Unité de cancérologie, hôpital Cochin, 27, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France, Service de pharmacie, hôpital Saint-Louis, 75475 Paris, France, Service de cancérologie, hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France
For the past two decades, significant developments have been made in supportive care for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A better understanding of the pathophysiology of vomiting and the introduction of two new classes of antiemetic agents with a high therapeutic index (serotonin type 3 receptor antagonists [anti-5HT3 or setrons] in the 1990s and neurokinin type 1 receptor antagonists [anti-NK1] in 2000), possibly combined with corticosteroids, have helped to improve the management of this distressing side effect, constantly feared by patients. It is essential to distinguish between the anticipatory, acute (first 24 hours) and delayed phases of CINV, to take into account the emetogenic potential of the different chemotherapy protocols (very low, low, moderate and high) together with individual risk factors. The authors would like to propose methodological and therapeutic recommendations for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of the acute and delayed phases of CINV, based on recent publications by international learned societies.