Résumé : Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are frequently used in oncology and haematology practice. Respiratory disturbance has been reported during administration of G-CSF. G-CSF may induce pulmonary toxicity but this fact remains an open debate because of its frequent association with other drugs. The action of these treatments could explain a part of the pulmonary events but not completely. The specific pulmonary effect of the G-CSF is probably underestimated. Most of these pulmonary events occur in association with other risk factors, mainly when a pneumonia occurs during the neutropenia. However, G-CSF are recommended in febrile neutropenia.