Laboratoire de chimie biologique, UMR 111, Université des sciences et technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve-d'Ascq
The proteome, first formalized in 1995, designs all the proteins expressed by the genome of a cell, tissu, or organ at a defined time. Proteomic analysis leads to a description of the regulation of gene expression by the study of proteins and of their post-translational modifications. Proteomic analysis is based on three technologies: 1) Two-dimensional electrophoresis allowing the separation of thousands of proteins from a single mixture; 2) mass spectrometry allowing the characterization of picoquantities of polypeptides and providing data on post-translational modifications; 3) Bioinformatic which is required for the quantification of protein level and for the constitution of databases of protein expression profiles. Complementing the methods of the genomics, the use of proteomic analysis is widely spreading in the fields of fundamental biology, biomedicine and pharmacology for the identification of new biological markers and therapeutic targets.